## Cloud computing, by its very nature, is already a universe of its own!

Small to massive amounts of data are stored, processed, and utilized online through servers that can be located far and wide across the globe. However, the matter becomes fascinatingly complex when quantum computing enters the picture, as with QMware, a company specializing in quantum computing in the cloud. But what is it, and what is its purpose? Good questions, good answers? A conversation with Georg Gesek, Chief Technology Officer at QMware!

### Mr. Gesek, thank you for being available for a brief “quantum chat” with us!

“Quantum chat” is a fitting term! I’m delighted to be able to share something from “my” world with you.

### Your company, QMware, specializes in hybrid quantum computing. What does this entail, and what are quantum systems, for that matter?

Hybrid quantum computing involves combining classical computers with quantum computers to solve specific tasks more efficiently than could be achieved with purely classical systems. Quantum computers utilize phenomena like superposition and entanglement, which manifest in the smallest components of nature at the micro and nano levels. We are talking about systems consisting of particles such as photons, which are particles of light, electrons, or ions.

### What is the major difference between a regular home PC and a quantum computer?

First, I’d like to dispel a common misconception: Quantum computers will never replace classical computers because their application areas are entirely different. Quantum computers can only complement classical problem-solving. It depends on the task at hand. Classical computers are good for calculations that can be represented by simple algorithms, such as basic arithmetic operations. However, more complex problems may require very lengthy, recursive classical algorithms to solve. Some of these recursive operations, as well as mathematical dependencies that prevent parallel computation, can be processed by quantum processors in significantly fewer steps.

Now, to address your question: The most significant difference lies in how a quantum computer performs calculations. A conventional computer works with classical bits that can be either 0 or 1. In contrast, a single qubit, which is the computing unit in quantum computing, can exist in a state called “superposition” of 0 and 1. You can think of it roughly like this: If a classical bit can take on the two colors, green = 0 or blue = 1, a qubit can assume all the colors resulting from combinations of green and blue, but ultimately, it still displays only one color.

Or, imagine you’re searching for specific information in a vast library by reading one book at a timeâ€”this represents a classical computer. In contrast, a quantum computer could address all the books simultaneously and find the desired information much faster.

### In cloud computing, you also work with so-called proprietary quantum simulators – what role do these simulators play?

Here, it’s important to use the correct terminology. By quantum simulation, we mean mapping the properties of physical systems that can be described quantum mechanically onto quantum processors. This allows us to simulate the physical properties of molecules in quantum computers, for example. This method is used in industries such as pharmaceuticals and materials science. On the other hand, quantum simulators refer to classical computers that can simulate quantum computers. We have developed a proprietary quantum simulator for these calculations based on CPUs and GPUs. This allows us to experiment with quantum algorithms at lower costs and run initial industrial applications productively.

### If you had to describe quantum technology/research in an image, what would it look like?

One image could be an ocean full of wave patterns that interfere with each other, creating ever-new patterns as they overlap. This illustrates the complex and intertwined nature of quantum systems. At the same time – and now we’re getting back into quantum physics – the ocean image reflects the wave-particle duality of quantum physics very well. This insight from quantum physics attributes properties of both classical waves and classical particles to objects. The image of an ocean consisting of numerous individual droplets simultaneously oscillating in waves comes close to representing this physical construct.

### For which challenges is quantum computing with a cloud already successfully used today?

Quantum cloud computing is already being tested in areas such as materials science, optimization, financial modeling, and drug development. It provides researchers and companies with access to quantum computing resources without physically owning their own quantum computer. We have tested specific applications with Terra Quantum and Thales Aerospace in France, such as satellite mission planning optimization or improving the design of tubular liquid mixers with Evonik in Germany.

### Looking into the future: Is it eventually possible to simulate nature in its processes, would that be desirable?

The ultimate goal for many in quantum research is precisely that: to model and understand complex natural systems more accurately using quantum computers. Take, for example, weather and climate phenomena: Earth’s atmosphere is an incredibly complex system of interactions between air masses, ocean currents, and many other factors. Conventional supercomputers are already in use to make weather forecasts but face limitations, especially when it comes to creating long-term climate models. Quantum computers are expected to help us simulate such models with unprecedented precision. This will lead to more accurate predictions and a better understanding of climate change and its impacts.

While these application examples are very promising, there are, of course, ethical and practical considerations. Like any advanced technology, we need to ensure responsible use of its potential. Similar to the rise of artificial intelligence, which already benefits from advances in quantum computing, there needs to be a public discussion and binding guidelines. I’m pleased to see that experts and stakeholders from industry, politics, and even philosophy are already addressing these issues.

### You are the Chief Technology Officer at QMware. What particularly fascinates you about this job?

Since my childhood, I wanted to understand how the universe works. I explored it from various perspectives. Then I had the idea to utilize the exponentially growing knowledge about nature for our own technologies. In my opinion, the most universal approach to this is computer science. So, after my studies at the Technical University of Vienna, I entered the IT industry and founded the high-performance computing company Novarion Systems in 2004. The intersection of quantum physics with computer technology and artificial intelligence has fascinated me the most since then. Few entrepreneurs get the chance to work at the forefront of a potentially revolutionary technology and to pioneer it. At QMware, we work at the intersection of theoretical physics, engineering, and practical applications, paving the way into the quantum age. What could be more exciting than shaping the future?

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*Georg Gesek is the Chief Technology Officer at QMware. Photo (c) QMware.*